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One year later

lateral roots pointing down

Here is the tree one year after it was shifted to a one gallon container. Note the abundance of lateral roots that were deflected down by the smooth-sided plastic propagation container continued to grow down after it was planted into a one gallon container. There are few lateral roots growing horizontally; everything is growing down. This tree was grown in a one gallon container with small holes and ridges in three locations along sides. Root systems should have at least some lateral roots that grow more or less horizontally for stability.