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Example 4

Before pruning

oak before pruning

Branches at the very bottom of the trunk just above the ground are not long enough to prune. Branches about 3 to 5 feet off the ground are long and can be shortened slightly. There are several stems growing upright in the top of the canopy that can be reduced to lateral branches pointed away from the trunk. Some of these competing branches can simply be shortened with a heading cut. Sprouts that grow from these shortened branches will help keep the canopy full of foliage.

After pruning

oak after pruning

Some low branches were shortened, and upright competing stems were shortened in the canopy. Remaining main branches are now spaced apart along a dominant trunk.