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Example 1

Before pruning

aggressive stem on left side of canopy

An aggressive stem has emerged from the left side of the canopy. It is too low on the tree to become part of the permanent canopy so it needs to be either removed or reduced in length. Removal is shown at right.

After pruning

stem is removed

After removing the stem on the left and shortening and removing some branches on the right, the tree has one dominant leader.